纽约时报双语版-研究发现新冠病毒可能在精液中存活

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Coronavirus May Lurk in Semen, Researchers Report

研究发现新冠病毒可能在精液中存活

纽约时报双语版-研究发现新冠病毒可能在精液中存活

3月,武汉市红十字会医院的一名医务人员从患者身上采集了新冠病毒样本。
Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Scientists across the world are trying to piece together a perplexing puzzle: how exactly coronavirus affects the body, and how it spreads from person to person.

世界各地的科学家都在试图揭开一个令人困惑的谜题:到底新冠病毒是如何影响我们的身体,以及它是怎样在人与人之间传播的。

In recent months, they have learned that the virus can live on some surfaces for three days and that it can stay suspended in tiny aerosolized droplets for about 30 minutes. The virus has been detected in saliva, urine and feces.

近几个月来,他们了解到该病毒可以在某些表面上存活三天,并且可以在微小的气溶胶中悬浮约30分钟。科学家已在唾液、尿液和粪便中检测到该病毒。

Now researchers in China have found that the coronavirus, or bits of it, may linger in semen. But the paper, published Thursday in JAMA Network Open, an open-access medical journal, does not prove that the virus can be sexually transmitted.

现在,中国的研究人员发现新冠病毒或其中的一部分可能存在于精液中。该论文于周四发表在对外开放的医学期刊《美国医学会杂志·网络开放》(JAMA Network Open)上,但是未证明该病毒可以通过性传播。

The doctors tested semen from 38 patients at Shangqiu Municipal Hospital in Henan Province in central China. All the subjects, who ranged in age from 15 to 59, had previously tested positive for the coronavirus.

在中国中部河南省商丘市立医院,医生对38名患者的精液进行了检测。受试者的年龄从15岁到59岁不等,新冠病毒检测均呈阳性。

Researchers detected genetic material from the coronavirus in the semen of six patients, around 16 percent. Four patients with positive semen samples “were at the acute stage of infection,” wrote Dr. Weiguo Zhao of the Eighth Medical Center of Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing and Dr. Shixi Zhang of the Shangqiu Municipal Hospital in Henan.

研究人员在六名患者的精液中检测到新冠病毒遗传物质,约占16%。北京解放军总医院第八医学中心的赵卫国博士和河南商丘市立医院的张世玺医生写道,有四名精液样本阳性的患者“处于急性感染期”。

Two were recovering, “which is particularly noteworthy,” they added. It had been 16 days since one of the men had first shown symptoms, according to a chart featured in the study.

他们还说,有两名患者正在康复中,“这点特别值得注意”。根据该研究报告中的一个图表,其中一名男子自首次出现症状以来已有16天。

Dr. Zhao and Dr. Zhang could not immediately be reached for comment.

未能联系到赵卫国博士和张世玺医生予以置评。

From the early days of the outbreak, public health experts have been saying that though the coronavirus could be transmitted through kissing, they did not believe it could be sexually transmitted.

从疫情暴发的早期开始,公共卫生专家一直在说,尽管新冠病毒可以通过接吻传播,但他们不认为可以通过性传播。

The new finding does not contradict this. If semen tests positive for the coronavirus, that does not mean that infectious virus is present, said Dr. Stanley Perlman, a professor of microbiology, immunology and pediatrics at the University of Iowa, who was not involved in the study.

新发现与此并不矛盾。艾奥瓦大学(University of Iowa)的微生物学、免疫学和儿科教授斯坦利·佩尔曼(Stanley Perlman)博士说,精液对新冠病毒的检测呈阳性并不意味着存在传染性病毒。佩尔曼未参与该研究。

“This is an interesting finding, but it must be confirmed that there is infectious virus — not just a virus product in the semen,” he said. The semen tests may have detected only fragments of viral RNA, he added.

他说:“这是一个有趣的发现,但必须确认精液中是否存在传染性病毒——而不仅仅是病毒的产物。”他还表示,精液检测可能只检测到病毒RNA的片段。

Dr. Perlman pointed out that unlike Zika, which is carried in the blood, the coronavirus primarily infects people via an oral or a nasal pathway.

佩尔曼指出,与通过血液传播的寨卡病毒不同,新冠病毒主要通过口腔或鼻腔途径传染。

At the moment, there still is no evidence that a person could be infected by sexual contact or an intrauterine insemination procedure with infected sperm. Transmission during sex is far more likely by the usual means: infectious respiratory droplets.

目前,尚无证据表明一个人可以通过性接触或用受到感染的精子进行宫腔内人工授精而受到感染。在性行为中的感染更可能是通过常见的途径:呼吸道飞沫传播。

Still, some doctors are eager for more research into the coronavirus and semen for other reasons. If scientists were to find infectious virus present in semen, there may be implications for the safety of oral sex and the handling of semen.

尽管如此,一些医生出于其他原因,仍渴望对新冠病毒和精液进行更多研究。如果科学家发现精液中存在传染性病毒,这可能会影响口交安全和精液处理方式。

Across the world, many fertility clinics have stopped accepting new patients — not only to reduce patient traffic, but also because of concerns that donor sperm might infect women trying to get pregnant.

在世界各地,许多生育诊所已停止接受新患者——不仅是为了减少患者流量,也是因为担心捐赠者的精子可能感染在尝试怀孕的女性。

There’s an urgent need for more studies, noted Dr. Amir Kashi of the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran in a paper titled, “Covid-19 and Semen: An Unanswered Area of Research.”

德黑兰沙希德·贝赫什提提医科大学(Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences)的阿米尔·卡什(Amir Kashi)博士在一篇题为《Covid-19与精液:研究的未解决领域》(Covid-19 and Semen: An Unanswered Area of Research)的论文中指出,人们迫切需要进行更多的研究。

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